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R&D计划:拯救欧洲鳗鱼的重大努力

鳗鱼是一种神秘的、神秘的濒危鱼类. 在瑞典, Statkraft and other hydropower companies are participating in a research and development programme to help the eel survive. 迄今所采取的措施似乎正在产生良好的效果.

Henrik Jatkola
Henrik Jatkola
发电厂经理

Henrik Jatkola是瑞典Laholm电厂集团的电厂经理, 负责公司在瑞典南部拉干河沿岸的水电站.

与其他鱼类相比,鳗鱼的存在方式很奇特. 它一生大部分时间生活在淡水中,一生中只产卵一次. 当它这样做的时候,它必须游到海里,在巴哈马东北部的马尾藻海. 产卵后, 成年鳗鱼死亡, 年轻时, 或者“玻璃鳗鱼”会回到父母出生的水道. 它们从海里游到河的上游,开始一个新的循环.

鳗鱼在海上的路线

需要帮助

Glass eels that try to swim up regulated waterways will quickly encounter obstacles in the form of dams and turbines. That is why Statkraft organises the catch and transport of glass eels and adult eels in the Lagan River in southern 瑞典. 这里有几个发电厂, and the glass eels are caught downstream in the river and released again upstream of the power plants in selected areas where they have the opportunity to grow and mature enough to spawn.

把小鳗鱼运上河

2019年,共捕获并转移了260公斤玻璃鳗鱼. This is equivalent to 260 000 glass eels and is almost ten times more than what was caught in the river ten years ago.

十大靠谱网赌必须回到20世纪60年代才能在河里找到类似数量的玻璃鳗鱼,Henrik Jatkola说, 他是拉干河国家发电厂的经理. He emphasises that it is difficult to say with certainty that the sharp increase is due to the measures taken by Statkraft, 但这对鳗鱼来说是个好消息.

“自2011年以来,十大靠谱网赌还将成年鳗鱼运往下游,经过发电厂. We believe that it's their offspring now returning to the watercourse as glass eels," says Jatkola.

这样的话, this means that our transport of young and adult eels does not adversely affect the eel's natural migration pattern, 但恰恰相反, 它帮助鳗鱼完成迁徙.

将成年鳗鱼运送到下游

漫漫归途

The glass eels caught and transported upstream in the Lagan River have put a long and dangerous journey behind them. They are born as larvae in the Sargasso Sea and spend two to three years travelling the Gulf Stream across the Atlantic. 在旅途中,幼鱼非常脆弱,很多会成为其他鱼类的食物. 那些到达欧洲海岸的人已经变成了玻璃鳗鱼, 长约六厘米.

It is these eels that are caught and transported up the Lagan River to be released above the power plant.

鳗鱼被运到河的上游
在好朋友的帮助下! The young and adult eels are carefully transported past power plants where turbine wheels and other obstacles can pose a hazard. (照片:十大最好的网赌平台)

为鳗鱼做了很大的努力

捕到玻璃鳗鱼,逆流而上, 捕获并运送成年鳗鱼到下游, 实施了哪些与Krafttag 计划(针对鳗鱼的重大努力)有关的措施?. 该方案是瑞典海洋和水务局(HaV), 六家水电公司和几个研究团体. The goal is to gain new knowledge about the eel and to implement specific measures that can help the eel overcome obstacles in the river. Statkraft自2011年以来一直参与其中.

近几十年来,欧洲鳗鱼的数量急剧下降, and according to some estimates it may be reduced by as much as 90–95 per cent compared to the stock in 1980.

“减少的原因尚不清楚, 但过度捕捞, 环境毒素, 淡水栖息地的丧失和气候变化被认为是可能的原因,Erik Sparrevik说, Vattenfall Vattenkraft AB公司的环境顾问和Krafttag 公司的董事会主席.

"We also know that dams and turbines connected to hydropower plants hinder the eel's natural migration. So it's important for companies operating power plants in rivers with a lot of eels to be involved in measures that can reduce the harmful effects. Krafttag ål has given us the opportunity to try out a wide range of measures at both large and small power plants,斯帕瑞克说.

参与这一努力的是大型水电公司, 他们还与瑞典海洋和水务局一起为该方案提供资金.

鳗鱼在清澈的河水里
对一些人来说,鳗鱼只是一种相当滑溜和奇怪的鱼. 对其他人来说,这是一种美味. 不管怎样,鳗鱼的数量正在减少,这个物种濒临灭绝. (照片:在上面)

几种方法

The research and development part of the programme has mainly focused on understanding the eel's behaviour and migration patterns, and gaining insight into how the operation of a hydropower plant can have as little impact as possible on the eel. The projects have provided new knowledge about possible technical solutions to help the eel on its way in the river.

"The solutions largely involve different types of grates that prevent the eel from entering tunnels and turbines, 还有物理上的转移,加上通过发电厂的通道,斯帕瑞克说. 他认为,小型和大型发电厂面临的挑战是完全不同的.

"With large power plants it's probably necessary to catch and transport the young and adult eels past the power plant. 在较小的工厂, 采取措施比较容易, – such as spillways where the eel can get around the power plant – without compromising operations.

网中鳗鱼
图片来源:Hans Fredrik Asbjørnsen

德国有应答器的鳗鱼

在德国, Statkraft has established a transponder-based system as the basis for tuning turbine operations to protect eels at several of the company's run-of-river power plants. 鳗鱼s with small radio transmitters detect changes in activity during the migration period and provide a signal to commence gentle turbine operation. 这个系统被称为Migromat,是由Dr. 德国应用生态研究所的贝亚特·亚当(如图).

鳗鱼什么时候迁徙?

鳗鱼一生只产卵一次, but can spend 10–15 years in a water body before one day it decides that now is the time to swim to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. 但这是什么时候发生的? 是否有可能预测它? 如果十大靠谱网赌知道成年鳗鱼什么时候开始迁徙, 从理论上讲,让涡轮机暂时停止运转,让它们自由通行是可能的.

"Research is constantly being carried out to find out whether it's possible to predict when adult eels are ready to migrate. 静态分析和模型表明电流, 月相和一天的长短都有影响, 但到目前为止,还没有发现能让十大靠谱网赌高精度地预测鳗鱼的迁徙,斯帕瑞克说.

“鳗鱼一直被神秘所包围,看起来这种情况还会继续下去."

“因为鳗鱼在欧洲是一种严重受威胁的物种, Statkraft has special programmes to manage them in areas where eels have to migrate through the company’s project areas. 这一点在瑞典和德国尤其适用. 制定促进鱼类洄游的适当措施, 结合鱼类生物学专业知识的综合方法, 水文学和工程学是必要的."
摘自国家统计局2018年年度报告

关于鳗鱼的事实

鳗鱼

欧洲鳗(Anguilla Anguilla)是一种长而细长的身体和光滑厚的皮肤的鱼. 雌性可以长到1只.体长5米,而雄性很少能超过0米.5米.

鳗鱼在马尾藻海产卵,幼虫随洋流漂流到欧洲. After two or three years they reach the coast of Europe and have become six to seven-centimetre-long "glass eels", 哪些游到河流上游. 在淡水中,鳗鱼经历了一个新的转变,变成了“黄鳗鱼”。. It can live in the watercourse for 10-15 years before migrating into the sea and becoming a "silver eel" that swims with the ocean currents to the Sargasso Sea to spawn.

自1980年以来,欧洲鳗鱼的数量已经减少了90 - 95%. 原因尚不清楚, 但人类的影响以过度捕捞的形式出现, 水道调节与气候变化, and natural phenomena such as fluctuations in the North Atlantic ocean currents and growth of the cormorant population, 有哪些可能的原因.

如今,鳗鱼已被列为需要保护的濒危物种.

关于“Krafttag”

  • Hydroelectric power stations with dams and turbines create obstacles for eels that need to migrate to the sea for spawning, 还有玻璃鳗鱼从海岸游向水道.

  • Krafttag ål (Major effort for eel) is a Swedish research programme in which research communities, hydropower companies and government authorities join forces to gain knowledge about eel behaviour and implement measures that can prevent or reduce injuries to eels. 该项目于2011年启动.

  • Statkraft是参与该计划的六家电力公司之一.

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